Recent analysis from ADR Wales’ researchers used administrative data to estimate career progression and pay differences among female and male teachers and school leaders in Wales.
Using anonymised administrative data from the 2019 and 2020 School Workforce Annual Census (SWAC), ADR Wales education researchers found that 77% of the qualified teacher workforce was female, however:
- 15% of male teachers held senior leadership roles compared to 9% of female teachers
- 16% of male teachers held mid-level leadership roles compared to 11% of female teachers
- Conversely, 9% of female teachers held coordination roles compared to 5% of male teachers
In terms of pay, average weekly earnings between male and female teachers at different career stages were found including:
- Male classroom teachers 0-2 years post teaching qualification earned, on average, £8 more per week than female teachers, rising to £60 more per week for those with 20+ years of experience
- For senior leadership, male staff 6-8 years post teaching qualification earned £56 more per week than their female peers, rising to £137 more per week at 20+ years of experience
Regression analysis was conducted to examine whether these trends were still present after controlling for differences between individuals such as working patterns, years of experience, school sector and local education authority.
This analysis found that male teachers were more than twice as likely as female teachers to be in a senior leadership position. Female qualified teachers earned 1.6% more in weekly pay than male teachers however, female teachers in senior management positions earned approximately 6% less in average weekly pay than their male counterparts after controlling for other school and individual factors.
The SWAC holds information on all staff employed in maintained schools in Wales. It includes records on staff roles, pay and contract details, staff characteristics, teaching qualification routes and dates achieved. Data from the schools census was linked to the SWAC to obtain additional information on school characteristics such as school size and language medium.